A quartz crystal provides both series and parallel resonance. The series resonance is a few kilohertz lower than the parallel one. Crystals below 30 MHz are generally operated between series and parallel resonance, which means that the crystal appears as an inductive reactance in operation, this inductance forming a parallel resonant circuit with externally connected parallel capacitance. Any small additional capacitance in parallel with the crystal will thus pull the frequency downwards. Moreover, the effective inductive reactance of the crystal can be reduced by adding a capacitor in series with the crystal. This latter technique can provide a useful method of trimming the oscillatory frequency within a narrow range; in this case inserting a capacitor in series with the crystal will raise the frequency of oscillation. For a crystal to operate at its specified frequency, the electronic circuit has to be exactly that specified by the crystal manufacturer. Note that these points imply a subtlety concerning crystal oscillators in this frequency range: the crystal does not usually oscillate at precisely either of its resonant frequencies.
Crystals above 30 MHz (up to >200 MHz) are generally operated at series resonance where the impedance appears at its minimum and equal to the series resistance. For these crystals the series resistance is specified (<100 Ω) instead of the parallel capacitance. To reach higher frequencies, a crystal can be made to vibrate at one of its overtone modes, which occur near multiples of the fundamental resonant frequency. Only odd numbered overtones are used. Such a crystal is referred to as a 3rd, 5th, or even 7th overtone crystal. To accomplish this, the oscillator circuit usually includes additional LC circuits to select the desired overtone.
Refund Policy for UGE Electronics “Https://uge-one.com “
1. Returns and Refunds
Thank you for shopping at UGE Electronics “Https://uge-one.com “. If you are not entirely satisfied with your purchase, we’re here to help.
2. Eligibility for Refund
To be eligible for a refund, please make sure that:
– The item was purchased in the last 14 days.
– The item is in the original packaging.
– The item isn’t used or damaged.
3. How to Initiate a Refund
To initiate a refund, please contact our customer support at [[email protected]] or . Provide your order number and details about the product you would like to return.
4. Refund Processing Time
Once we receive your item, we will inspect it and notify you that we have received your returned item. We will immediately notify you on the status of your refund after inspecting the item.
If your return is approved, we will initiate a refund to your credit card (or original method of payment). You will receive the credit within a certain amount of days, depending on your card issuer’s policies.
5. Shipping Costs
Shipping costs are non-refundable. If you receive a refund, the cost of return shipping will be deducted from your refund.
If you wish to exchange an item, please contact our customer support. You will be responsible for the return shipping costs, and we will cover the shipping costs of the replacement item.
7. Damaged or Defective Items
If you received a damaged or defective product, please contact us immediately for assistance. We will work with you to resolve the issue promptly.
8. Contact Information
If you have any questions about our Refund Policy, please contact us at [[email protected]].
Important Note: This Return & Refund Policy is applied only for Orders invoiced VIA UGE Electronics, and regarding any Orders has been invoiced VIA any Other Vendor you can check the Return & Refund Policy of this Vendor VIA the Vendor Stroe Page, and it’s not our responsibility for any issue between you and the Vendor.